Volumes 1-4 & Volume 6

Volume 1

ALDERSBROOKE, a locality in Epping forest, Essex; near the river Roding, 1 mile WNW of Ilford r. station, and 6 miles NE of St. Paul's, London. It has a postoffice under Ilford, London E. Here is the City cemetery; and here was the seat of the antiquary Lethieullier.

BARKING, or Berking, a town, a sub-district, and a parish, in the district of Romford, Essex. The town stands on a rich flat tract, on the river Roding and on the Southend railway, 2 miles N of the Thames, and 7 E of Bishopsgate, London. Its name is a corruption of Burg-ing, signifying the "fortification in the meadow;" and seems to allude to an ancient entrenchment, enclosing upwards of 43 acres, and still traceable. The town rose to importance in 670, by the founding at it of an extensive abbey for Benedictine nuns; and it was the residence of William the Conqueror during the erection of the tower of London, and the place where the Earls of Mercia and Northumberland, and many other nobles, swore fealty to him on the restoration of their estates. The abbey was founded by Erkenwald, Bishop of London; destroyed, in 870, by the Danes; rebuilt by King Edgar; governed, after his death, by his queen, and at other times by a long series of royal or noble ladies; served, throughout all its duration, as a prime seminary of the gentry of England; and passed, at the dissolution, to Edward, Lord Clinton. Nothing now remains of it except a gateway at the entrance to the present churchyard, a square embattled structure, with an octagonal turret at one corner; whose upper part is a room, formerly called the Chapel of the Holy Rood, having large windows in perpendicular English. The parish church stands near the site of the abbey church; and possesses two Norman pillars in the N aisle, some lancet lights in the chancel, a curious niche at the NW of the nave, and some brasses and sculptured mural monuments; but is chiefly a structure of late and poor style, very tastelessly restored. The market-house or town-hall is a timbered edifice of the time of Queen Elizabeth. The town has a station on the railway, a post-office under London E, two hotels, three dissenting chapels, a Roman Catholic chapel, an endowed school with £20 a-year, alms-houses with £185, and other charities with £125. A weekly market is held on Saturday; and an annual fair on 22 Oct. The inhabitants are chiefly market-gardeners, graziers, fishermen, or seamen; and the last are employed largely in bringing coal and timber to London. The creek of the Roding bears the name of Barking creek, has a convenient wharf and a magazine, and is a coastguard station. Pop. of the town in 1841, 3,751; in 1861, 5,076. Houses, 1,059. The sub-district includes also Ripple ward. Pop., 5,591. Houses, 1,102. The parish includes likewise Chadwell and Great Ilford wards. Acres, 12,741; of which 225 are water. Real property, £54,590. Pop., 10,996. Houses, 2,246. Most of the tract between the railway and the Thames is a fertile meadow flat, called Barking level, disposed in grazing ground for black cattle, and protected from high tides in the Thames by an immense embankment. This work, as originally constructed, gave way in 1707, with the effect of about 5,000 acres being inundated; but it was repaired and strengthened at a cost of about £40,000. The contiguous reach of the Thames bears the name of Barking reach; is 1¼ mile long; and has, in the middle, a dangerous shoal of 5 furlongs, called Barking shelf, on which the Grampus of 54 guns was wrecked in 1799. The great outfall of the new drainage of London is at Barking creek. This work comprises three gigantic parallel sewers; is 5¼ miles long; crosses streams, roads, and railways, by means of bridges and tunnels; possesses more stupendous features than those of most railways; was undertaken at an estimate of £625,000, and employed, in 1861, ten steam engines and locomotives, and about 1,500 workmen. Eastbury House, about a mile ESE of the town, is an old brick building, said by some to have been the residence of Lord Monteagle, and alleged by tradition to have been the place where the Gunpowder plot was concocted. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £767. Patron, All Souls' college, Oxford.

BARKING-ROAD, a chapelry, with a r. station, in West Ham parish, Essex; 1¾ mile S by E of Stratford. It was constituted in 1867. Pop., about 5,050. Living, a p. curacy. Value, £200. Patron, the Bishop of Rochester.

BECONTREE, a hundred in Essex. It is bounded on the W by the river Roding, - on the S by the Thames; measures 8 miles by 5½; and contains nine parishes. Acres, 38,826. Pop in 1851, 46,777; in 186l, 73,023. Houses, 12,606.

BOW, a parish and a sub-district in Poplar district, Middlesex. The parish is called also Stratford­le­Bow; lies on the river Lea, and on the North London and Eastern Counties railways, within Tower Hamlets borough, in the eastern suburbs of London, 4 miles ENE of St. Pauls; includes the village of Stratford, the hamlet of Old Ford, and part of Victoria Park; and has a station of Bow on the North London railway, a station of Stratford on the Eastern Counties railway, and post-office of Bow, Bow-Road, and Old Ford, under London E. Acres, 809. Real property, £75,460. Pop., in 1841, 4,626; in 1861, 11,590. Houses, 1,848. The name Bow alludes to a bow-shaped, three-arched bridge across the Lea, built by Matilda, the queen of Henry I., and not taken down till 1834; and the name Stratford alludes to a ford in the Lea, on the line of the Roman road or "stratum" to Layton. A new bridge, in lieu of the ancient one, with one oblique arch of 70 feet, was created in 1839, at a cost of £11,000. Bow was once famous for cream and cakes; it also carried out an extensive manufacture of porcelain; and it had a notable annual fair which became so great a nuisance, that it was suppressed by parliament. It now has dye-houses, large breweries, and the East London waterworks; and takes a character from the proximity of the India docks. The parish was formerly a chapelry to Stepney, and became parochial in 1717. The living is a rectory in the diocese of London. Value, £349. Patron, the Bishop of London. The church was built in the time of Henry II.; presents a curious mixture of Norman and early English; and has a low tower and an eight-sided corner turret. The vicarage of Old Ford is a separate benefice. A Baptist chapel, in the Byzantine style, at a cost of nearly £7,000, was built in 1867. There are other dissenting chapels, two endowed schools with £27 and £251, and charities £170. - The sub-district contains also the parish of Bromley-St. Leonard. Pop., 35,667.

BROMLEY-ST.-LEONARD, a parish in Poplar district, Middlesex; on the river Lea, the Limehouse cut, and the North London and Eastern Counties railways, near Bow and Stratford stations, 3¾ miles ENE of St. Paul's, London. It has post-office, of the name of Bromley, under Bow, London, E. Acres, 619. Real property, £81,313. Pop., 24,077. Houses, 3,407. Part of the land is disposed in market gardens. Many of the inhabitants are employed in calico print-works, mills, a potash factory, a brewery, a distillery, and the West and West India docks. The limits include part of the city of London workhouse, and part of Tower Hamlets cemetery. A Benedictine nunnery, dedicated to St. Leonard, was founded at Bromley, in the time of the Conqueror, by William Bishop of London; and given, at the dissolution, to Sir Ralph Sadler. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £300. Patron, J. Walter, Esq. The church belonged to the nunnery, and has Norman traces. The vicarage of St. Michael and the p. curacies of St. Leonard's chapel, St. Gabriel, and St. Andrew are separate benefices. Value of St. M., £300; of St. G. and St. A. each £200. St. M.'s church was built in 1866-8; and is in the early English style. St. A.'s and St. G.'s were built in 1869. There are a Wesleyan chapel, public schools, almshouses, and some charities.

CANN-HALL, a locality adjacent to Epping forest, Essex; ⅓ a mile N by W of Forest Gate r. station, and 5¼ NE of St. Paul's, London. It has a post-office under Leytonstone, London N. E.

CANNING-TOWN, a chapelry in West Ham parish, Essex; adjacent to the Victoria docks and North Woolwich railway, 5½ miles E of London Bridge. It was constituted in 1866; and it has a post-office under London E. Living, a p. curacy.

Volume 2

CHURCH-STREET, a ward in West Ham parish, Essex ; on the Eastern Counties railway, near Epping forest, 5½ miles ENE of St. Paul's, London. It contains the villages of Upton and Forest-Gate.

EASTERN COUNTIES RAILWAY, a railway system from London, through Middlesex, Essex, Herts, Cambridge, and Hants, to Suffolk and Norfolk. It includes the original Eastern Counties, of two main lines or arteries, to Colchester and to Cambridge; the Northern and Eastern, from Stratford to Newport, with a branch to Hertford; the Newmarket, to the town of that name with branches to Cambridge, Ely, and Thetford; and the Bury extension, to Bury-St Edmunds;—and it was incorporated, in 1862, with the Eastern Union, the Norfolk, the East Anglian, and the East Suffolk, to form the Great Eastern.

EPPING, a small town, a parish, a sub-district, a district and a forest in Essex. The town stands in the forest, on a rising-ground, near the source of the river Roding, 5½ miles NNE of Loughton ; has now a station on the Ongar railway; is irregularly built; comprises one long wide street; is a seat of petty sessions, and a polling-place; and has a head post-office, a chief inn, a town-hall of 1865, a church, and three dissenting chapels. It is well supplied with water from land-springs; it attracts visitors and residents, in the summer months, on account of its pleasant and healthy situation; and it was famous, till recently, for sending much dairy produce to London. A weekly market is held on Friday and fairs on Whit-Tuesday, the first Friday of July, and 13 Nov. The parish includes also the hamlet of Epping-Upland-with-Ryehill. Acres, 5,281. Real property, £11,640. Pop., 2,105. Houses, 465. The property is much subdivided. The manor belonged to Earl Harold; was given to Waltham abbey; and belongs now to the duchy of Lancaster. Copped Hall, a very fine residence, is the seat of the Hon. A. Ashley. Copped Park contains an ancient British camp. The living is a vicarage in the dio. of Rochester. Value, £729. Patron, H. J. Conyers, Esq. The p. curacy of St. John is a separate benefice. A fine suite of national schools, in the pointed style, was erected in 1861. Baker's charity has £168 a-year; and other charities have £129. - The sub-district contains also the parishes of Thoydon-Garnon, North-Weald-Bassett, Magdalen-Laver, and Nazeing. Acres, 16,940. Pop., 5,018. Houses, 1,074. - The district comprehends also the sub-district of Chigwell, containing the parishes of Chigwell, Chingford, Loughton, and Thoydon-Bois; and the sub-district of Harlow, containing the parishes of Harlow, Roydon, Great Parndon, Little Parndon, Netteswell, Latton, Sheering, and Matching. Acres, 46,452. Poor-rates in 1862, £9,098. Pop. in 1851, 15,631; in 1861, 16,549. Houses, 3,383. Marriages in 1860, 84; births, 510, - of which 25 were illegitimate; deaths, 316, - of which 108 were at ages under 5 years, and 14 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 761; births, 4,611; deaths, 2,885. The places of worship in 1861 were 21 of the Church of England, with 5,386 sittings; 7 of Independents, with 1,263 s.; 3 of Baptists, with 1,385 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 300 s. ; and 1 of Lady Huntingdon's connection, with 170 s. The schools were 22 public day schools, with 1,614 scholars; 31 private day schools, with 731 s.; 16 Sunday schools, with 1,254 s.; and 2 evening schools for adults, with 47 s. The workhouse is in Thoydon-Garnon. - The forest is a wild chase; extends from the vicinity of London southward to Walthamstow; formerly included a great part of Essex; is divided from Hainault forest by the river Roding; is under a lord warden and four verderers, elected by the freeholders; possesses great beauty, and is diversified with plantations, mansions, and villas; and formerly was a favourite resort of the citizens of London for archery, and the scene of an annual festival on Easter Monday, when a stag was turned out for a hunt by the civic sportsmen.

FOREST-GATE, a village in West Ham parish, and a chapelry in West Ham and East Ham parishes, Essex. The village stands adjacent to the Eastern Counties railway, near Epping Forest, I¼ mile ENE of Stratford; and has a station on the railway, and a post-office under Stratford, London E. The chapelry was constituted in 1852. Pop., 3,792. Houses, 584. Pop., of the West Ham portion, 3,437. Houses, 524. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £220. Patron, alternately the Vicar of West Ham and the Vicar of East Ham.

GALLIONS REACH, a reach of the Thames between Plumstead marshes in Kent and East Ham level in Essex. It begins below Woolwich reach; extends north-eastward; is about a mile long; and has from 13 to 17 feet of water, but includes a shoal on the left side with only 7 feet.

Volume 3

GREEN-STREET, a hamlet in East Ham parish, Essex; ½ a mile W of East Ham village. An old house here, belonging to the Morleys, is said to have been a residence of Anne Boleyn.

HAINAULT FOREST, an ancient forest in Essex; averagely 3½ miles NW of Romford. Here, at its south end, near Aldborough-Hatch, stood the famous Fairlop oak, 36 feet in girth, and 300 feet in circumference of head. A great annual assemblage, or fair, was held under that tree on the first Friday of July. The tree was partly destroyed by fire in 1805; and was finally overwhelmed by a storm in 1820. See EPPING.

HALLEVILLE, a hamlet in Plaistow parish, Essex; near Canning-Town. It has a post-office under Canning-Town, London E.

HAM, or (East Ham), a village and a parish in West Ham district, Essex. The village stands near the London and Southend railway, and near the river Roding, 1 mile WSW of Barking; and has a station on the railway, police station, and a post-office, of the name of East Ham, under Barking, London E. The parish contains also the hamlet of Greenstreet; and extends from Wanstead-Flats to the Thames at North Woolwich. Acres, 2,495; of which 40 are water. Real property, £13,564. Pop. in 1851, 1,550; in 1861, 2,264. Houses, 333. The increase of pop. arose partly from the opening of the railway station, partly from the establishment of industrial schools belonging to St. George-in-the-East. The property is divided among a few. Some of the land is rich marsh, and affords pasturage for many cattle. The manor belonged anciently to Waltham abbey. Greenstreet House is said to have been built for Anne Boleyn, and belongs now to J. Morley, Esq. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £865. Patron, Brasenose College, Oxford. The church is partly Norman; has a nave and two chancels, - the upper chancel semicircular; and contains a piscina, and a monument to Edmund Neville, Lord Latimer. Dr. Stukeley, the antiquary, was buried in the churchyard. A new church was built in 1863, at a cost of about £3,000; is in the late first pointed style, with some foreign features; consists of nave, transepts, and chancel, with central tower; and stands in a central situation. There are national schools, alms-houses with £75, and other charities, with £22.

HAM, or West Ham, a village, a parish, a sub-district, and a district in Essex. The village stands E of the river Lea, between Stratford and Plaistow, near the North Woolwich and Eastern Counties railway stations at Stratford, about 1½ mile E of Bow Bridge, and 2¼ N of the Victoria Docks; is a large place, with some good houses ; was formerly a market-town ; and has a post-office, of the name of West Ham, under Stratford, London E. A Cistertian abbey was founded, about a mile from the village, in 1135, by William de Montfichet ; was defended by a moat ; was the place in which Henry VIII. confined the Countess of Salisbury ; and is now represented by some ruins. There is a post-office of West Ham Abbey, under Stratford, London E. The parish is divided into three wards :- Church-street ward, containing West Ham village, Upton, Forest-Gate, and Canning-Town; Stratford ward, containing Stratford, with the Grove, the Green, and Maryland Point ; and Plaistow ward, containing Plaistow village, the Marshes, Hallsville, Silvertown, and the Victoria Docks. Acres, 5,390 ; of which 230 are water. Real property £157,997; of which £1,641 are in gas-works. Pop. in 1851, 18,817; in 1861, 38,331. Houses, 6,191. The increase of pop. arose from the establishment of works of the Eastern Counties railway, the erection of the Victoria Docks and iron-ship-building yards, the establishment of cokeovens and of India-rubber and chemical works, the operations of building societies, the opening of a railway station, and some other causes. There are also extensive water-works, distilleries, flour-mills, a large brewery, smelting-works, copper-works, a medical glass factory, a large congreve war-rocket establishment, water-proofing manufactories, a silk-printing establishment, a large patent leather-cloth manufactory, and some other industrial establishments. The living is a vicarage, in the diocese of London. Value, £700. Patron, the Crown. The church is ancient but good; comprises a nave with aisles, a chancel with N and S chapels, and a tower 74 feet high; and contains an altar-tomb of 1485, and several other interesting monuments. The p. curacies of Plaistow, Barking-Road, Victoria-Dock, Forest-Gate, Stratford-St. John, Stratford-St. Paul, and Stratford-Christchurch are separate benefices. There are also several chapels or licensed school-rooms, connected with the Established church ; a number of chapels for Independents, Baptists, Methodists, and Quakers ; a number of public schools, - one of which has an endowment of £284 a-year; two suites of alms-houses, - one of which has £60 a-year ; a suite of industrial schools, for the children of the district ; and numerous charitable bequests for the poor. The sub-district contains the wards of Church-street and Plaistow, and the parishes of East Ham and Little Ilford. Pop., 25,195. Houses, 3,875. The district comprehends also the sub-district of Stratford, conterminate with the ward of Stratford ; the sub-district of Leyton, containing the parishes of Low Leyton and Wanstead; and the sub-district of Walthamstow, containing the parishes of Walthamstow and Woodford. Acres 19,477. Poor-rates in 1863, £32,989. Pop. in 1851, 34,395; in 1861, 59,319. Houses, 9,810. Marriages in 1862, 354 ; births, 2,133, - of which 72 were illegitimate; deaths, 1,279, - of which 604 were at ages under 5 years, and 22 at ages above 85. Marriages in the ten years 1851-60, 2,216; births, 15,232; deaths, 9,142. The places of worship, in 1851, were 16 of the Church of England, with 9,143 sittings; 9 of Independents, with 2,208 s.; 2 of Baptists, with 286 s.; 1 of Quakers, with 200 s.; 4 of Wesleyan Methodists, with 820 s.; 1 of Primitive Methodists, with 200 s. ; 1 of the Wesleyan Association, with 128 s.; and 2 of Roman Catholics, with 125 s. The schools were 37 public day schools, with 3,801 scholars; 54 private day schools, with 1,149 s.; 24 Sunday schools, with 2,274 s. ; and 1 evening school for adults, with 12 s. The workhouse is in Low Leyton.

ILFORD, a sub-district in Barking parish and Romford district, Essex; comprising the wards of Great Ilford and Chadwell Pop., 5,405. Houses, 1,084.

ILFORD (Great), a small town, a chapelry, and a ward in Barking parish, Essex. The town stands on the river Roding, and on the Eastern Counties railway, near Epping forest, 3½ miles ENE of Stratford; is within the jurisdiction of the central criminal court and the Metropolitan police; and has a station of the name of Ilford on the railway, a post-office of the same name under London E, a police station, a reading-room, a church. Baptist and Wesleyan chapels, a national school, and an endowed hospital with a chapel. The church is a modem edifice, of white brick, in the lancet style : and has pinnacles at the corners, a large cross over the E window, and a tower with light spire. The hospital was founded, for lepers, in the time of Henry II., by an abbess of Barking; was re-constituted by Queen Elizabeth, for six poor men, and for a town chaplain; is an edifice of the 15th century, much modified by alterations and repairs; forms three sides of a quadrangle, with the chapel on the S side; is under the Marquis of Salisbury,, as master and patron ;and has an income of £85. The river Roding was made navigable to the town about the year 1738. The chapelry was constituted in 1836; included then Barking-Side, Aldborough-Hatch, Chadwell-Street, and a portion of Hainault Forest; and was re-constituted, to the exclusion of Barking-Side, in 1841. Rated property, inc. of Barking-Side, £24,200. Pop., in 1861, exc. of Barking-Side, 3,688. Houses, 750. The property is much subdivided. Fossil remains, comprising very large bones of oxen, horns and bones of stags, a spiral horn, 13 feet long, and the head, teeth, and bones of an elephant different from the elephants of Asia or Africa, were discovered, in 1812, in a field near the river Roding; and other fossil remains, including teeth and tusks of the hippopotamus, were found in a neighbouring field. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £430. Patron, All Souls College, Oxford. The p. curacy of Aldborough Hatch is a separate benefice. The ward is more extensive than the chapelry. Pop. in 1851, 3,745; in 1861, 4,523. Houses, 903.

ILFORD (Little), a village and a parish in West Ham district, Essex. The village stands adjacent to the river Roding and to the London and Tilbury railway, ¾ of a mile NE of East Ham r. station, and 3¼ E by N of Stratford; and has a post-office under Ilford, London E. The parish contains also the new village of Green-Hill-Grove. Acres, 763. Real property, £3,220. Pop. in 1851, 187; in 1861, 594. Houses, 124. The increase of pop. arose from the formation of Green-Hill-Grove village. The property is divided among a few. The manor belongs to J. W. Wight, Esq. Ilford Lodge and Ilford Cottage are chief residences. The New City of London cemetery is here; was opened in 1856; comprises an area of 894 acres; and was formed at a cost of £80,000. The Essex county house of correction also is here; was erected in 1831; and has accommodation for 51 male and 5 female prisoners. Petty sessions are held in this building every Saturday. The living is a rectory in the diocese of London. Value, £408. Patron, J.W. Wight, Esq. The church is old but good, and contains several handsome monuments. Charities, £31.

LEA (The), a river of Beds, Herts, Essex, and Middlesex. It rises in Beds, near Houghton-Regis ; runs south-eastward, past Luton, into Herts; goes across that county, windingly, but chiefly in an easterly direction, past Wheathampstead, Hatfield, Hertford, and Ware, to the neighbourhood of Hoddesdon ; runs thence southward, on the boundary between Essex on the left and Herts and Middlesex on the right, past Waltham-Abbey, Chingford, and Stratford; and falls into the Thames a little below Blackwall, Its length of course is about 46 miles; and its chief tributary is the Stort. It was known to the ancient Britons as Logodunum or Logrodunum ; and it gave the name of Leamouth or Leymouth to the place at its embouchure now called Limehouse. The navigation of its lower reaches was a subject of litigation, in the time of Henry V., between the Corporation of London and the Abbot of Waltham; it was regulated or protected and improved, by various charters in succeeding reigns; and it underwent special improvement, by embankments and by the construction of locks, under an act of parliament passed in 1855.

Volume 4

LEYTON, a village, a parish, and a sub-district, in West Ham district, Essex. The village stands adjacent to the river Lea, the Great Eastern railway, the boundary with Middlesex, and the London and Ongar railway, 5¼ miles NE by E of Bishopsgate, London; took its name, signifying Leatown, from its position on the Lea; occupies or is near the site of a Roman station, near the Roman or Stone way to Colchester; and where many coins and other relics of the Romans and some of the Saxons have been found; belonged to King Harold; comprises now one long street; contains respectable and handsome houses, embosomed in trees; is continuous with Knotts-Green and Lea-Bridge, which formerly were separate hamlets; and has a station on the Ongar railway, and a post-office under London NE. The parish contains also the post-office of Leyton-Street, Low Leyton, and Lea-Bridge, under Leyton, London NE; includes the village and chapelry of Leytonstone; is sometimes called Low Leyton; and lies within the jurisdiction of the metropolitan police. Acres, 2,241. Real property, £23,289. Pop. in 1851, 3,901; in 1861, 4,794. Houses, 762. Leyton House, Leyton Park, Etloe House, Solway House, Leytonstone House, Forest House, Wallwood House, and Buxton House are prominent residences; and there are many other fine ones. Remains of ancient entrenchments, with a square double embankment surrounded by a moat, are at Ruckholts. Temple mills, on the Lea, were mills said to have belonged to the Knights Templars; but they were demolished to give place to water-works. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of London. Value, £450. Patron, John Pardoe, Esq. The parish church, or church of St. Mary, is a small plain brick building; and contains monuments of Stripe the antiquary, who was vicar here for nearly 70 years, - Bowyer, the famous printer, - Goring, Earl of Norwich, - Sir Michael Hickes, and others. Another church, called the church of All Saints, was built in 1865, at a cost of £2,147; is in the decorated English style, cruciform, with five-light E window; and contains 560 sittings. There are a Wesleyan chapel in Leyton, an Independent chapel in Leytonstone, national schools in both places, eight alms-houses, and a workhouse. The total yearly value of charities is £178. The workhouse is for West Ham district; and, at the census of 1861, had 572 inmates. Sir T. Roe, ambassador to the Great Mogul in the time of Charles I., was a native. - The sub-district contains also the parish of Wanstead. Acres, 4,245. Pop., 7,536. Houses, 1,108.

LEYTONSTONE, a village and a chapelry in Leyton parish, Essex. The village runs parallel to Leyton village, and northward of it; lies on the Roman road to Colchester, adjacent to the London and Ongar railway; took the latter part of its name from a Roman milliarium, which stood at it; has recently undergone great increase; contains many fine suburban villas; and has a station on the railway, about a mile N of that of Leyton, and a post-office under London NE. The chapelry was constituted in 1845. Pop. in 1861, 2,396. Houses, 325. The living is a p. curacy in the diocese of London. Value, £150. Patron, J. Pardoe, Esq. The church occupies a commanding site on the road from Stratford to Epping; and is a handsome edifice, with light square W tower, surmounted by four fine spirelets. There are an Independent chapel, and a national school for boys and girls.


LONDON, TILBURY, AND SOUTHEND RAILWAY, a railway from the eastern part of the metropolis eastward, along the S border of Essex, to Southend. It deflects from the Blackwall line at Stepney; passes on to the Great Eastern at Bow station; is identical with that line nearly as far as to Ilford; goes on to the east of Purfleet; passes though Grays; and proceeds to West Tilbury and Tilbury Fort, and thence to Southend. The company was originally, in 1852, an incorporation of acquiescing shareholders on the Blackwall and the Eastern Counties; was authorized, in 1856, to form a junction between the Blackwall and the North London, and two branches to the North Woolwich line of the Eastern Counties; and was incorporated, in 1862, into a distinct company, under the condition that the Blackwall and the Great Eastern should each nominate one third of the board.

Volume 6

SILVERTOWN, a village in West Ham parish, Essex; adjacent to the London and North Woolwich railway, near the Victoria docks. It has a r. station, an india-rubber cloth factory, and a church in the decorated English style, built in 1862, at a cost of £7,000.

STRATFORD, a town, a ward, and three chapelries, in West Ham parish, Essex. The town stands on the river Lea, on the Roman road to Colchester, and on the Great Eastern railway, at a radiation of railway lines, 4½ miles E of St. Paul's, London; had a mitred Cistertian abbey, founded in 1135 by W. de Montfitchet, and now represented by considerable remains; was the place where Henry VIII. confined the Countess of Salisbury; witnessed the martyrdom of 13 men and 2 women in the time of Queen Mary; was the birth-place, in 1692, of the naturalist G. Edwards ; carries on industry in Flour-mills, print-works, chemical-works, distilleries, and other establishments; publishes a weekly newspaper; communicates by a bridge with Stratford­le­Bow ; and has a post-office under London E, a r. station with telegraph, a police station, a town-hall built in 1868, workmen's hall and club-rooms built in 1865, three churches built in 1833, 1851, and 1865, an Independent chapel built in 1866, Baptist and Wesleyan chapels, a Roman Catholic chapel, and industrial, national and British schools. - The ward is regarded as conterminate with the town, forms a sub-district of West Ham district, and is sometimes called Stratford-Langthorne. Real property, £43,863; of which £1,117 are in gas-works. Pop. in 1851, 10,586; in 1861, 15,994. Houses, 2,773. - The chapelries are St John, Christchurch, and St. Paul. The livings are Vicarages in the diocese of Rochester. Value of St J., £310; of C. £130; of St P., £300. Patron of St J., the Vicar of West Ham; of C. and St P., Trustees.

STRATFORD-BRIDGE, a r. station on the SW border of Essex; on the London and Victoria Docks railway, 1½ mile S by E of Stratford.



UPTON, a village in West Ham parish, Essex; 6½ miles NE of St Paul's, London.

VICTORIA DOCK, a chapelry in West Ham, East Ham, and Woolwich parishes, Essex and Kent; on the river Thames, and on the North Woolwich branch of the Great Eastern railway, nearly opposite Woolwich, and 2½ miles SSE of Stratford. It has two post-offices under London E, and r. stations with telegraph. Pop. in 1868, nearly 10,000. Docks here, on what was previously a desolate tract of marsh, were formed in 1855; comprise a water-area of 90 acres, upwards of a mile of quayage, and a total area of 90 acres; and have three pairs of lock-gates, the highest of which is 80 feet in span and entirely of iron. There are also ship-building yards, iron-works, phosphate works, telegraph and india-rubber works, and a sugar refinery. The living is a p. curacy in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £300. Patron, the Bishop of Rochester.

WANSTEAD, a parish, with W. village and Snaresbrook hamlet, in West Ham district, Essex; on the river Roding, 1½ mile NW of Ilford r. station, and 7 NE of London. It has a post-office under London NE, and a K. police station. Acres, 2,004. Real property, £11,993. Pop. in 1851, 2,207; in 1861, 2,742, - of whom 671 were in the Infant orphan asylum. Houses, 346. The property is subdivided. The manor belonged, in the late Saxon times, to St. Paul's, London; was held, at Domesday, by R. Fitz-Brien; and passed to the Huntercombes, the Herons, the Crown, Lord Rich, the Earl of Leicester, the Mildmays, the Childs, the Tylneys, and the Wellesleys. The manorial mansion was restored by the Earl of Leicester; gave entertainment in 1578 to Elizabeth, in 1607 to James I.; was rebuilt in 1715 by Sir R. Child; became the residence of some of the Bourbon princes in their exile; and was taken down by the Earl of Mornington, in 1823. A Roman pavement and other Roman antiquities were found in the park in 1735. There are numerous good residences. The living is a rectory in the diocese of Rochester. Value, £616. Patron, Earl Cowley. The church was rebuilt in 1790; and has a Doric portico, surmounted by a cupola. A chapel of ease was built in 1861, and enlarged in 1867; and it acquired a tower and spire in 1868. An Independent chapel was built in 1865. There are a national school, a young girls' protection society, a merchant seamen's orphan asylum, the infant orphan asylum at Snaresbrook, the Weavers' alms-houses, and charities £66.

WOOLWICH (North), a section of Woolwich parish, with a small new town, on the N bank of the Thames, at the terminus of a branch of the Great Eastern railway, adjacent to the Victoria docks, and opposite Woolwich. It has a post-office under London E, two r. stations with telegraph, a hotel, a landing-pier, and a promenade. Acres, about 400. Pop., not separately returned.